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Several women had informed Mol that they had contracted HIV from him but he ignored it.

Phylogenetic footprinting and shadowing unveil conserved expression, thus providing additional evidence for the role of galectin-1 in immune–endocrine cross-talk.Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of 27 publicly available vertebrate and seven newly sequenced primate coding sequences reveal that intense purifying selection has been acting on residues in the carbohydrate recognition domain and dimerization interface that are involved in immune functions.Parsimony- and codon model-based phylogenetic analysis of coding sequences show that amino acid replacements occurred in early mammalian evolution on key residues, including gain of cysteines, which regulate immune functions by redox status-mediated conformational changes that disable sugar binding and dimerization, and that the acquired immunoregulatory functions of galectin-1 then became highly conserved in eutherian lineages, suggesting the emergence of hormonal and redox regulation of galectin-1 in placental mammals may be implicated in maternal–fetal immune tolerance.Molecules that have been implicated in conferring maternal–fetal immune tolerance include galectin-1, B7 proteins, Crry, Fas ligand, HLA-G, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (2–4, 7–11).These proteins are involved in pathways regulating adaptive or innate immune responses at the maternal–fetal interface, and their disruption may lead to pregnancy complications, such as miscarriage, fetal loss, and preeclampsia (2, 8–12).Galectin-1 is an anti-inflammatory lectin with pleiotropic regulatory functions at the crossroads of innate and adaptive immunity.

It is expressed in immune privileged sites and is implicated in establishing maternal–fetal immune tolerance, which is essential for successful pregnancy in eutherian mammals.

Galectin-1 is up-regulated in uterine natural killer cells and is a key moderator of regulatory T cell functions (21, 22).

A recent study reported that galectin-1 induces the generation of tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells in mice, and the knockout of led to a higher rate of fetal loss in allogeneic mating (9).

Its up-regulation in tumors correlates with poor clinical outcome, possibly because galectin-1 reduces the survival of tumor resident T cells and promotes tumor immune escape (19).

In addition, galectin-1 has been implicated in transplantation tolerance because it diminishes morbidity and mortality of graft-versus-host disease in a mouse allogeneic bone marrow transplantation model (20).

The success of mammalian pregnancy, in which the developing fetus and mother exchange nutrients, gases, and other molecules via the chorioallantoic placenta, requires maternal immune tolerance to fetal allo-antigens (1–4).