Which agent is a nonsedating antihistamine
Common gastrointestinal manifestations include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pains or cramps, and diarrhea.Although symptoms vary between acute allergy patients, onset generally occurs seconds to minutes after exposure to an antigen and requires prompt treatment.
In yet another aspect, the injectable formulation of the non-sedating antihistamine as described above has a 90% confidence interval around the difference in the reduction of at least one symptom of anaphylaxis or an acute allergic reaction to a reference injectable product, such as diphenhydramine injection, for the per protocol evaluable population, within about −30.00 to about 30.00, wherein the symptom is pruritus severity, pruritus duration, erythema, angioedema, number of urticaria areas, number of erythema areas, and/or wheezing.Medications currently used in the treatment of acute allergic reactions include epinephrine, diphenhydramine injection, corticosteroids, albuterol, and glucagon.Epinephrine is the first-line drug to be given to a patient having an acute allergic reaction.In other embodiments, the non-sedating or second and third generation antihistamine injectable formulations are therapeutically equivalent to diphenhydramine injectable formulations and/or are more effective than placebo. These cells, in turn, release histamine, serotonin, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins, and induce a range of signs and symptoms, such as facial flushing, urticaria (hives), edema, pruritus, broncho-constriction, cough, cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.In other embodiments, a non-sedating antihistamine injectable composition is delivered by an autoinjector.1. Cutaneous manifestations are most common, with urticaria and angioedema present in 88% or more of patients experiencing acute allergic reactions.Fatal anaphylaxis is relatively rare; milder forms occur much more frequently.
The frequency of acute allergic reaction is increasing, and this has been attributed to the increased number of potential allergens to which people are exposed, such as increased varieties of food and medications.
An alpha-receptor agonist, epinephrine reverses hypotension. It also has beta-receptor activity, which dilates the airways, increases the force of myocardial contraction, and suppresses histamine and leukotriene release, reducing inflammatory responses.
Diphenhydramine injection is the second-line drug to be given to a patient having an acute allergic reaction as an adjunct therapy to epinephrine for the relief of peripheral symptoms such as pruritus, engioedema, hives, erythema, etc.
A recent review concluded that the lifetime prevalence of acute allergic reactions including anaphylaxis is ˜5% of the population with higher prevalence in developed countries than developing countries.
Approximately 1 in 5000 exposures to a parenteral dose of a penicillin or cephalosporin antibiotic causes anaphylaxis.
Low molecular weight contrast causes fewer and less severe reactions. Although prior exposure is essential for the development of true anaphylaxis, reactions occur even when no documented prior exposure exists.